Dr. Danielle Gilliam is a senior obesity medical liaison with Novo Nordisk Inc. She has thorough knowledge of obesity, diabetes and the science that supports Novo Nordisk products.
Dr. Gilliam attended Xavier University in New Orleans for her undergraduate studies in chemistry and the University of Illinois Chicago for her Masters in Public Health and Doctorate in Pharmacy. Her 20 years in the field of diabetes includes clinical, research and industry experience.
OBESITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE COMPLICATIONS INCLUDING:
- SLEEP APNEA
WHAT CAUSES OBESITY?
A: Obesity is a complex disease. Multiple factors like genetics, environmental, physiological, and psychological all playing a role.
WHAT OTHER HEALTH COMPLICATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY?
There are over 100 obesity related complications, the most common in the African-American community is Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, depression, sleep apnea, infertility, cancer and heart disease.
WHAT AGE GROUP DOES OBESITY AFFECT THE MOST?
Obesity affects all age groups and genders. Obesity can reduce your life expectancy up to 10 years. The younger you are, the most years taken off your life.
WHAT STATES OR REGIONS TEND TO HAVE THE HIGHEST OBESITY RATE?
The Midwest (29% obesity) and South(29.5% obesity) are the regions most affected by obesity. The CDC has identified a Southern obesity belt. This belt comprises the states AL, AK, IN, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, OK, SC, TX, and WV with MS and WV having the highest rates.
WHAT IS THE BODY MASS INDEX AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW?
BMI is a convenient population level measure of obesity. You calculate BMI by dividing your weight in kilograms by the square of your height in meters. Or you can simply go online and Google BMI calculator; type in your weight and height to determine your BMI.
HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU ARE CONSIDERED OBESE?
Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. A BMI equal to or greater than 30 is considered obese.
HOW CAN I SAFELY LOSE THE WEIGHT AND THEN NOT GAIN IT BACK?
Weight loss is highly individualized. This will vary based on what factors play a role in your obesity (i.e. genetics, psychological, environmental). Numerous studies have shown that when people lose weight achieved by dieting, they regained weight and in some studies more than their initial weight before the diet.
This is in part due to the physiological responses to weight loss. As you lose weight, your responds to hormonal and metabolic adaptations causing an increase in hunger and desire to eat. If you have chronic obesity, you should speak with your physician or an obesity specialist.
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TEXT YOUR QUESTIONS TO 646464 AND THE DOCTOR WILL ANSWER ON BLACK AMERICA WEB DOT COM
Q: That BMI is based on African Americans or White Americans?
A: Body Mass Index (BMI) is independent of ethnicity or gender. BMI is calculated using weight and height.
BMI=weight (kg)/height (meters)²
BMI was developed by a Belgian mathematician named Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet. The formula is a quick and easy way to measure obesity for the general population. It is not the most accurate measurement for all individuals. BMI does not take into account relative proportions of bone, muscle, and fat in the body. Bone and muscle weigh more than fat. An athlete with muscle tone may have a BMI over 30 and incorrectly classified as obese.
Q: What is a recommended way to start eating right toward losing the 5-10 percent or is being active good enough?
A: If a person has the disease of obesity, eating right and being active may not be “good enough”. There are satiety hormones secreted after a meal that signal the brain to stop eating and gives feelings of fullness. When a person loses weight, the satiety signals decrease and the hunger hormone increases. The body defends its weight and the hormones work against the individual and causes them to eat more; hence causing weight regain. Some individuals may require pharmacotherapy in addition to eating healthier and increasing physical activity to achieve the 5-10%.
Q: I weigh 230lbs and I’m 6′ am I consider overweight.?
A: If we used the classification based on BMI, you would have a BMI of 31 which would make you obese. Overweight is classified as a BMI 25-29.9.
Q: Doctor what are your thoughts on the keto diet?
A: Overall, all dietary strategies can provide weight loss benefits if the individual adheres (sticks with) to the “diet”. The issue with “diets” are they have to become a lifestyle change. Typically if you stop the diet, you regain the weight; based on the hormonal drive for your body to proactively seek food with weight loss.
Q: Is candida an engineered disease to cause obesity?
A: I am unaware of candida being an engineered disease to cause obesity.
Q: Child obesity what are some tips for helping them make healthier choices when parents aren’t around.
A: This will depend on the environment of the child when they are not around you. If it is at school, you can work with your school district to get healthier options in the school system. It’s an easier fix if the environment is home. As the parent, purchase healthier options for your child when you are not home. Over time, if you develop a culture of healthier eating habits, the child will chose those healthier options even in your absence.
Q: I was recently prescribed Lipitor for cholesterol of 218 but I’m experiencing side effects. What are lifestyle changes or alternatives to drug therapy?
A: You should follow up with your primary care physician to discuss side effects and other alternatives. If you are overweight or obese, losing 5-10% of your total body weight could help you manage your high cholesterol.
Q: Is it not true, the BMI was done by insurance companies in order to price policies? A 6”1″, 212 lbs. muscular man is not obese, however, according to the BMI he is.
A: BMI was developed by a Belgian mathematician named Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet. The formula is a quick and easy way to measure obesity for the general population. It is not the most accurate measurement for all individuals. BMI does not take into account relative proportions of bone, muscle, and fat in the body. Bone and muscle weigh more than fat. An athlete with muscle tone may have a BMI over 30 and incorrectly classified as obese. Obesity is a complex disease. Multiple factors like genetics, your environment, hormonal imbalance, and psychological issues they all play a role. A key thought leader in the field of obesity often says “genetics loads the gun, but the environment pulls the trigger”.
Q: Does the BMI account for muscularity? What about bodybuilders, they’re heavier but not overweight?
A: BMI does not account for bone or muscle weight. A more accurate measure for a muscular person would be waist circumference, a measurement of fat around the waist. A waist size greater than 35 inches for women and 40 inches for men increase your risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Q: How much water a day are you supposed to drink a day? 64 ounces, a gallon, or half your weight?
A: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine determined that an adequate daily fluid intake is about 16 cups of fluids for men and about 12 cups of fluids a day for women. These recommendations cover fluids from water, other beverages, and food. About 20 percent of daily fluid intake usually comes from food.