Faces of Hope: Integrating Duke

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  • Nathaniel B. White Jr. stepped into history simply by going to college. With little fanfare, he became part of a group now called the “First Five,” the first Black students to attend Duke University.

    It was 1963. Blacks were marching in Birmingham, demanding public facilities be integrated. When violence erupted, President Kennedy sent 3,000 troops to protect the marchers.  James Meredith was attending the University of Mississippi, but violence had erupted upon his enrollment and federal troops were sent there to maintain peace also.

    White was 18 and had just graduated with honors from Hillside High School in his hometown of Durham, N.C that year.

    “That August 28, 1963 at the March on Washington, the White family had a reunion right there on the mall with Martin Luther King,” he said, laughing. “A week or two later, I entered Duke University.”

    Initially, he had not planned to attend Duke. He lived four and a half miles from the Duke Chapel but he dreamed of attending Hampton University, which was then called Hampton Institute, the historically black college that his father and favorite uncle had graduated from. In fact, White had a full scholarship to Hampton.

    Yet his plans  changed when his high school counselor came to him with a suggestion.

    “She said there was an opportunity to go to Duke and that it was something I should do,” he recalled.

    White said his decision to attend Duke was partially “a bit of a sense of duty.” Plus he never felt his life would be in jeopardy, he said. “My father knew some Duke people and he got the sense I would be protected in that environment.”

    But also, White admits, he was naïve about the giant step he was taking into history.

    “Growing up was a very insular experience for me,” said White, who grew up in the flourishing and then nationally known black community in Durham called Hayti.

    Hayti was once considered the black economic capital of the country. The area was home to more than 200 black-owned businesses, including a bank, hospital and the largest black owned insurance company. White’s father owned a printing company and like many blacks in the community, the family owned their house.

    At Duke, White was not met by angry mobs or the violence that had plagued other schools as they were integrated.

    “There was real preparation for Duke to integrate,” he said.

    Instead of being housed in freshman dorms as was the tradition for new students, the black students were placed in dorms with the more mature upper classmen. Still, White didn’t feel accepted by his fellow classmates as much as he felt tolerated or ignored. He did learn later, though, that some of his classmates actually looked out for him.

    “There was a kid who put a black cat in my dresser. He was handled by the other students,” said White.

    While there was no outright violence against him, there were incidents that let him know he was not wanted or that some people at Duke were having a difficult time adjusting to his being there. In one case, a teacher changed the grading system for a class to justify giving White, the only student to make 100 on the mid-term, a  grade of “C”.

    And on campus, where cultural and social activities are a major component of student life, the First Five had to make adjustments.

    “We went to keg parties because they were done by the dorms,” White said. “But our dates (who were black) came from North Carolina Central and UNC-Greensboro and the First Five often went to events together.”

    Then there was the song “Dixie,” the rallying song at Duke’s sporting events.

    “People went wild over that song,” said White, adding, “I never stood for Dixie at anytime, anywhere.”

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